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Whether we go far back in the shadowy and mystic twilight of the traditional era, or bring 
research down to the clearer light of the historic age, the "Falls of Ohio" has been the central 
and radiant feature of attraction in the picturesque expanse of territory that lies east of the Mis- 
ssippi river, and between the Great Lakes and the Cumberland Range, and which is known as 
the Ohio Valley. To the first white adventurers exploring the solitudes of the great wilderness 
of the Occident, beyond the mountains, this abrupt and formidable barrier to navigation excited 
' surprise and wonder, at first; and admiration and attractive charm always after. The legends of 
Indian story tell us the spot was no less famed among the Red Men, while the romance and 
poetry of tradition conspire to impress us that the locality was consecrated in the unwritten his- 
tory of the Mound Builders fifty generations ago. 

Nor need we be surprised at the fame and attractiveness of the Falls of Ohio, when we con- 
sider how dependent/were these primitive peoples on the provident sources of Nature for sus- 
tenance and comfort, how fond they were of the picturesque and beautiful in scenery, and with 
what jeajousy they guarded against and resisted the trespass of any foe upon their favorite 






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grounds. Fish abounded in die rivers, and game in die forests; therefore their favorite dwelling- 
sites were upon the banks of rivers, with forest and plain adjacent, where these could be held in 
comparative security. The "Falls" was a famous fishing point, and its broad current gave ample 
play for the little boats and canoes that swarmed upon the Ohio. The country for twenty miles 
south, west and east, in Kentucky, was level and fertile, and much of it covered with cane. The 
Blue Grass country, beginning twenty miles away in Shelby County, spread one hundred miles 
further, to Madison or Mason counties. Hardly less fertile are the champaigns and valleys of In- 
diana and Illinois, on the north, and extending even to the lakes and to the Mississippi river. The 
site of Louisville is the central crossing of the beautiful river of this paradise of the hunter, where 
game and fish food were always abundant and an easy prey to the skill of the natives. 

We cannot, in the brief space of this sketch, pause to repeat again the legends and traditions 
given by the Indians to the early French along the lakes and on the Mississippi, and afterwards 
repeated to Boone, Clark, Kenton, and other pioneers of Kentucky, how their fathers came from 
the far west, crossed the upper Mississippi, warred on the Mound Builders, and drove them south 
of the Ohio, defeating their main army in a last great battle opposite Louisville, on the In- 
diana shore. If so, we might trace them by other traditions, by the crania, the implements of 
war and household use, the dialect and race affinities, and by the confirmations of science and his- 
tory, to the headwaters of the Missouri, across the Rocky Mountains and up the coasts, to Behr- 
ing Straits, and into Central Asia, to an origin with the nomadic Huns, who were driven out and 
dispersed in hordes to Europe, to Southwest Asia and through Siberia to America, eighteen cen- 
turies ago. We might next turn, and, by the testimonies of ethnic and archaic sciences, trace the 
refugee Mound-Builders in their wanderings, southwestward across the Mississippi, and finally 
into Mexico, where, according to their glyphic books and picture-writings, they established the 
Toltec empire and civilization in the sixth century; and where they were followed by twelve 
migrations in six hundred years, the last being that of the Aztecs, expelled hy the Red Indians 
from the Tennessee Valley, and forming the empire and civilization of Mexico at the time of the 
conquest by Cortez. 

Of historical data, we have only brief mention, and at long intervals, of the country adjacent 
to Louisville, until the latter half of the eighteenth century. To open up new channels of trade 
with the Indians, we are told that Col. Wood, an English gentlemen, explored Kentucky in 1654, 

as far as the Meschacebe river, as the Father of Waters was then called. He discovered several 
branches of that and of the Ohio. 

In 1669, a party of twenty-three Spaniards ventured up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, pass- 
ing- the F"alls, to a point above Pittsburg, from whence they crossed to Onondaga lake, New 
York, in search of silver, being told of a lake whose bottom was covered with something shining 
and white like silver. They were massacred by the Indians, finally. 

A detachment of French troops was sent from Canada to the lower Mississippi, down the 
Ohio, in 1739, on account of war with the Chickasaws. But we pass over these transient episodes 
to one more important in June, 1766. In that year Capt. James Gordon, Chief Engineer in the 
Western Department of North America, was sent from Fort Pitt to the mouth of the Ohio. He 
halted at the mouth of the Scioto river, at Great Lick, in Lewis county, at Falls of Ohio, and at 
Fort Massac, eleven miles below the mouth of Cherokee (Tennessee) river. He seems to have 
made a pretty accurate measurement of the Ohio, with its meanderings, which we give, compar- 
ing with the survey made by the United States Government in 1868: 


, Big Sandy river miles ;_'i 3'4}4 

Scioto river " 366 353 Yi 

Licking river " 5°°}4 4^/i 

Place where elephant bones were found " 5''°/^ 5 I2 /4 

Kentucky river " (104^ 541 

Falls of Ohio , " 682 599 

Large river on east side ( Creen) " <)0-}{ 775 

Wabash river " >)<)<)/4 838 

Big Rock Cave, on west side " 1,042^ .S69 

Shawanna ( Cumberland) river " 1 ,094^ 908 

Cherokee river " 1,107.^ 920 

Fort Massac " 1,118.'^ 929 

Mouth of Ohio " 1,164 967 

Prior to the termination of the French and Indian wars, in 1763, the former held the country 
from Canada to the Ohio river, by a cordon of forts, pushed as far southward as Pittsburg, Vin- 
cennes, Kaskaskia and Cahokia; the latter two opposite St. Louis. When these were surrendered, 
with Canada, the French retired to the westward of the Mississippi, and the country fell under the 
dominion of Great Britain. The English sovereign issued his proclamation given to the soldiers 
whose valor had won an empire of territory, the right to survey and locate portions of the land, 


under the title of warrants issued to them for military services. This gave a new impetus and in- 
terest to western adventure In place of the mere transient and roving visits of the past, organ- 
ized survey parties began to make their appearance, in behalf of the veteran soldiers who wanted 
homes, or the capitalists who had purchased the land-warrants of others. The choicest lands in 
the most desirable localities were at first sought for. It was but natural that the Bear Grass coun- 
try, in the vicinity of the Falls, should have been a scene of these first operations. 

The men who formed these survey and locating parties were generally intelligent and enter- 
prising. Among the number of adventurers was Dr. John Connelly, a Pennsylvanian by birth, 
who had served in the French war as surgeon's mate in the general hospital of the royal armies. 
It is said of him that he had more thoroughly examined and studied the western country than had 
any man of his day. Of the points of attraction presenting, he selected the site of the Falls of 
Ohio, as the most eligible of all others west of the Alleghanies, for investment and improvement 
in the future. His conceptions were large, and not a little romantic. His idea was to plant a 
great colony between the Ohio, Tennessee and Mississippi rivers. 

As the initial step to this scheme, 2,000 acres were selected at the Falls. Connelly employed 
Captain Thos. Bullitt, of Virginia, to survey this, which he accomplished in August, 1773, with 










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his corps of assistants brought down the Ohio that year. The tract thus surveyed began its outer 
lines on the river bank a little above the old mouth of Bear Grass creek, then between Third and 
Fourth streets, and followed the meanders of the river to the bank below, where Shippingport 
now stands; then ran southwardly to the intersection of Broadway and Nineteenth streets; then 
eastwardly with Broadway to the intersection of Shelby, and then northwardly to the beginning. 
Captain Bullitt having returned the field notes of this survey to the Land Office of Virginia, a 
patent was issued to Dr. Connelly by Governor Lord Dunmore, December 16, 1773. 

Tradition affirms that Captain Bullitt laid off a town on this survey in 1773. Connelly soon 
after formed a partnership with Col. John Campbell, and on the 7th of April, 1774, they jointly 
issued from the capital, Williamsburg, a circular stating that they would lay out a town at the 
Falls of Ohio, The lots were to be 80 by 240 feet, and enough for all applicants in number. 
Each lot was priced at four Spanish dollars, and one dollar quit-rent forever. On each lot the 
owner was to build a log house, not less than sixteen feet square, with a stone or brick chimney, 
within two years from the date of purchase. 

But a dark cloud fell over the enterprise, or rather, several dark clouds. Before the town 
laid out on paper could materialize with money and improvements, Dr. Connelly, made command- 
ant at Fort Pitt by Governor Dunmore, got into trouble with the traders and Indians. The bat- 
tle of Point Pleasant followed on the 10th of October, that year. The clouds of the Revolutionary 
war were on the horizon, and the storm burst forth in full fury in 1775. The laying out of the 
town at the Falls was abandoned by the promoters. Dr. Connelly sided with the Tories in 
•the war for independence, and was detected in a plot to unite the Indians against the Americans. 
He was arrested and thrown into prison, from which he did not escape till near the close of the 
war. His partner, siding with the Colonists, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and Capt. Bul- 
litt, who had distinguished himself on the Patriot side by his gallantry in the service, became quar- 
termaster in the Rebel army. Thus ended the first attempt at a city at the Falls. 

But the Revolutionary war, which put an end to the first enterprise, gave birth to another, 
more successful. On the 27th Of May, 1778, after fifteen days upon the river, Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, on his way to the conquest of the British forts in the northwest, landed his boats 
on an island in the Ohio just below the mouth of Bear Grass creek. Besides 150 riflemen, he 
brought with him some twenty families, consisting of men, women and children. The ground on 


which the landing was made, known after as Corn Island, was then a larger island. It extended 
from Fifth to Fifteenth streets, 4,000 feet, and 1,000 feet in width. The friction and abrasion of 
the waters of a century, have worn away all but a small portion of the upper end, which was of 
rocks; the lower part was alluvial covered with trees and cane. 

When the landing was made, Col. Clark intended to remain until he could properly discipline 
and provision his troops, in order to make them efficient in the campaign against the British 
posts. Block houses were erected for the soldiers and cabins for the families. The highest ground 
in the northwest corner of the island was chosen as the site for the building's. Two rows of one- 
story double cabins, four in each row, were erected, with a wide road between, one row facing the 
Indiana and the other the Kentucky shore. On the eastern point of these were erected two 
triple cabins, so that the ground below was in the form of an Egyptian cross. 

On the 24th of June, 1778, Geti. Clark embarked with his soldiers for the campaign against 
the British Posts, leaving the families on the island with a few men to guard them. These families 
became the founders of Louisville, and the names of many of their descendants have since, and 
until this day, been associated with the history and development of the Falls City. Among those 
known to have been left on the island were James Patton, his wife, Mary, and his three daughters, 









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Martha, Mary and Peggy; Richard Chenoweth, his wife Hannah, his two daughters, Melana and 
Jane, and his two sons, James and Thomas; John and Mary McManiss, and their sons George, 
John and James; John and Mary Tuel, and their children, Jesse, Ann and Ninney; William and 
Elizabeth Faith, and their son John; Jacob and Elizabeth Reager, and their children, Henry, Sarah 
and Maria; Edward and Mary Worthington, and their children, Charles, Ann and Elizabeth; 
James (iraham and his wife, Mary. 

They were in due time made aware of Clark's success by the prisoners borne from Kaskas- 
kia to Virginia, and in the latter part of the same year word came from the victorious com- 
mander to erect a fort on the main land for future habitation there. It was at once begun on 
the high bank where the foot of Twelfth street now fronts the river, and was finished in 1789. 
The costs of the'work were afterwards settled and paid for by the Virginia Legislature. Around 
this fort some of the settlers on the island joined the emigrants who rapidly poured in, built 
their cabins, and gave to the new settlement the name of 'White Home." This fort was a 
parallelogram of double log cabins, 200 feet in length and ioo in breadth, with an inner court of 
150 feet by 50. Each of the four corners was a block house, with walls projecting beyond the 
lines of the cabins, and serving the purpose of bastions. 

While this was in course of construction, another fort was begun near the mouth of Bear 
Grass by Col. John Floyd, and built with eighteen rooms, capable of sheltering one hundred per- 
sons. To this was given the name, ''Mouth of Bear Grass." These two forts served the purposes 
of the settlers until Fort Nelson was erected in 1782. This more foimidable structure stood on 
the north side of Main, between Sixth and Seventh streets, and was built with some pretense to 
military art. It covered about one acre of ground, and was surrounded by a ditch eight feet 
deep and ten wide. Cannon was used in the armament of this defensive work; among the pieces 
a six-pound brass field-piece captured at Vincennes. This piece of ordnance was a favorite with 
General Clark, and became a pet with the soldiers after. It was used in Clark's future expedition 
against the savages, and with it the fortifications of the British and Indians at Piqua were battered 
down. We cannot here find space to give an inventory of the military equipment and munitions 
of Fort Nelson, now the most formidable post in the great wilderness; but we mention that there 
were, .one brass six-pounder, two brass three-pounders, one iron ten-pounder and eight iron 

swivels, with cartridges, balls, shells, hand-grenades, muskets, swords and other paraphernalia of 
war, adequate to any emergency. 

The impetus given by these military establishments was sufficient to give to the Falls of 
Ohio an attraction and importance. Assured -of safety against all assaults and perils of savage 
warfare, the influx of emigrants at once set in, and all appearances of a busy town were given 
to the site of Louisville. The map of William Beard, a surveyor, executed in 1779, shows one 
street running along the river bank from First to Twelfth streets, and half- acre lots, 105 feet front 
by 210 deep, laid out on each side of it, and numbered from one to eighty-four. It showed, 
also, four short streets north of Main, opposite the great bend of the river, and lying off in a 
north-west direction from Tenth street. Main street was crossed by twelve streets running north 
and south, one square each, and the four streets in the river bend north of Main were crossed by 
four others at right angles. The lots were numbered, and on April 20, 1779, the settlers had a 
lottery and drew their lots by the numbers, and assumed ownership accordingly. 

Late in the same year of 1779, General Clark returned to the Falls, and had drawn and 
platted a map of the town, which was a vast improvement on the crude attempt of Beard. This 
showed three streets parallel with the river, corresponding with our Main, Market and Jefferson; 
and twelve streets at right angles to them, corresponding with our present cross streets, numbered 
from one to twelve. The space from Main street to the river was left public, with the cross streets 
running through and dividing it into eleven sections. Back of the street corresponding to Jeffer- 
son was another slip of ground, half a square in width, extending the length of the town, with 
the cross streets cutting it also into eleven sections. Two whole squares were left, in addition, 
between Fifth and Sixth streets, where the Court House row stands. 

But the trustees never adopted any plan of the town, as far as their records show, until that 
of Jared Brooks was established by act of the Legislature in 1812. None of the plats of the many 
made were comparable to that of Clark, and had this been adopted and adhered to, it would have 
made of Louisville one of the handsomest laid-out cities on the continent, with its public grounds 
as defined. 

The sequel showed that Louisville was not to be exempt from that complexity and disorder 
which resulted from the crude legislation of Virginia in regard to the surveys and titles of real 
estate, and out of which grew a pandemonium of litigation, entailing disaster and the loss of 


homes and fortunes to thousands. A 
novel incident in the instance of Louis- 
ville served to involve the early set- 
tlers in more serious trouble and loss. 
They had laid out the city on the 
lands surveyed and entered by Dr. 
Connelly, and the loyalist owner lay 
in prison under the charge of treason 
against the colonial government then 
at war with England. It was thought 
best therefore, to have the land of 
Connelly confiscated for his treason 
in taking up arms against his coun- 
try, and to obtain an act incorporat- 
ing the town upon his forfeited land. 
A petition was sent to the Legisla- 
ture of Virginia early in 1779, pray- 
ing for these purposes. The prayer 
was granted, and the upper half of 
the two thousand acres of the Con- 
nelly land was forfeited, and vested in 
trustees, John Todd, Stephen Trigg, 

George Slaughter, John Floyd, William Pope, George Merriwether, Andrew Hines, James Sulli- 
van, and Mortham Brashears. By a rule of the legislature, this act took effect, May 1, 1780. 
But there must be no mistake about the Tory Connelly being fully divested of all his land, by 
judicial proceedings, as well as by statute of Virginia. On the first of July, 1780, an inquest was 
held at Lexington by George May as escheator, with the following named as jurors : John 
bowman, Nathaniel Randolph, Daniel Boone, Waller Ourton, Robert McAfee, Edward Cather, 
Henry Wilson, Joseph Willis, Paul Froman, Jeremiah Lilford, James Wood, and Thomas Grant. 
The jury found that Connolly was a British subject within the meaning of the act of escheats; that 








after the 19th of April, 1775, he of his own free will, left the States, and joined the British troops; 
and that on the 4th of July, 1776, he was possessed of 2000 acres of land on the Ohio opposite 
the falls. The escheator and jurymen signed an indenture of inquisition, setting forth the facts, 
and had it recorded. By coincidence, the legislative act and the verdict of the jury were on the 
same 1st of July, 1780, divesting the inflexible loyalist of his lands. Thus fidelity to an unjust 
and unholy cause, though it may have been with purest intent, led to the sacrifice of a fortune 
that promised millions to the owner if fortune had but smiled favorably. 

It would seem that all these formalities of legislative and court proceedings would have been 
sufficient to have forever made good the titles to the lot property of Louisville, but such was 
not the case, as will presently appear. At the first meeting after incorporation, February 7, 1781, 
the trustees appointed Meredith Price, clerk, and directed George May. the county surveyor, to run 
the division line between the upper and lower thousand acres of the Connelly tract, and lay off 
town lots of all the upper half, not yet so laid off. In the summer of 1783, began a bitter conflict 
between the city fathers and Col. John Campbell, concerning the titles to property. At the May 
session of the Virginia Legislature, 1783, an act was passed recognizing a debt of £450 due 
from Connelly to Campbell & Simon, as a lien upon the land on which Louisville was founded, 
and all sales of lots by the trustees suspended. At the October session of that year another act 
was passed which repealed the original act of incorporation, so far as it affected the rights of 
Campbell & Simon to make their money out of this land. In 1784 an act was passed requiring 
the trustees to sell the land on which the town was laid off, and pay off this debt with interest. 
In 1786, after Col. Campbell had been paid more than this debt, another act was passed appoint- 
ing commissioners over the trustees, and authorizing them to sell any of the lots unsold in the 
town, to pay Campbell & Simon above £600 due them from one Alexander McKee. This McKee 
was a renegade white man, like the infamous Girtys, who had left Pittsburg and joined the hostile 
Indians at the opening of the Revolutionary War. He became debtor to Campbell for sutlers 
supplies at Pittsburg, and the debt thus created had no relation whatever to the land which formed 
the site of Louisville. Although it was most probable that the debt was for purchases of arms 
and ammunition, with which he helped the Indians to fight the settlers around Falls of Ohio and 
other portions of Kentucky, the act was lobbied through the Virginia Legislature in 1 79 1 , just 
before Kentucky became a State, divesting the lower thousand acres of the Connelly tract of any 

defect of title it might have received from the inquest of escheat, and confirmed it to Campbell after 
he had thus been allowed to make his original mortgage debt, and the outrageous McKee debt, 
out of the upper one thousand acres upon which Louisville was laid out. 

After this buccaneering legislation, and the spoliations under it, all that was left of the 

splendid domain that formed the site for city, where the public square at the court house and the 

grave yard on Jefferson street, between Eleventh and Twelfth; the one thousand acres were 

swallowed up. Under the new order of things, the town was practically to make its beginning, 

and it began in a new way under the better auspices of home government. In 1 795, the Kentucky 

Legislature put the control of municipal affairs in the hands of a board of trustees elected by the 

people, and in the same act, got rid of Campbell by discontinuing the inspection of tobacco at his 

warehouse in Shippingport. The first trustees elected were Archibald Armstrong, Gabriel I. 

Johnston, John Eastin, Evan Williams, Reuben Eastin, Henry Duncan and Richard Prather. The 

board elected Worden Pope their clerk, June 7, 1797. The first tax-list of Louisville is an interest- 

ing relic of the times, and is as follows : 

£ 1 — 5 s— od 

S 0(1 

2 OS — 0(1 

50 horses, at 6d each 

60 negroes at id each 

2 billiard tables at 20s each 

5 ordinary licenses at (is each 1 — 10s — od 

5 retail stores at 10s each 2 — 10s — od 

6 carriage wheels at 2s each o — 12s — od 

Town lots at 6s per €100 8 — 13s — 6d 

80 tithables at 3s each 1 2 — ■ os — od 

£31 — 15s— 6d. 
The grandchildren who are here a century later to-day will be curious, and perhaps amused 
to know what the city fathers did with this amount of revenue, upon which to launch the little 
bark of destiny upon the broad sea of the unexplored future. Fortunately the records are pre- 
served to tell us of the queer things done; such as the passing of ordinances for cutting down 
the Jamestown weeds in the streets, building a bridge over Beargrass Creek aided by private 
contributions, forbidding the landing of millstones at the mouth of said creek, making the owners 
of houses renting for eight pounds a year furnish a fire-bucket for each house, contracting with 
Drake's Theater for a benefit in lieu of a tax, punishing with 15 lashes negroes where three or 
more assembled at the market house and made a noise, forbidding the burying of any corpse 


except that of a citizen in the grave yard, issuing shinplasters of twelve and a half cents and 
upward for a circulating medium, and offering one cent for the scalp of each rat killed in the 
city. Such were the antecedents of Louisville to 1795, with a population of some 400 adven- 
turous people from different states and foreign lands, content to dwell in humble cabins for their 
homes, and to endure the mire of the unpaved streets and the stagnant ponds which were the 
features of the town for years. Under the regime of the trustee government, Louisville began 
and layed the foundation for some of those enterprises which since have given her character, 
growth, and prosperity. 

In 1795, the tobacco trade, now grown to be the largest of any city in the world, was inau- 
gurated in a log warehouse on the river near the old mouth of Beargrass. 

In 1797, pilots were authorized by law to conduct boats over the rapids, after the loss of 
many lives and much property by unskillful navigators. In 1799, Louisville was made a port of 
entry by act of Congress. This had been an importing place years before, under the dominion 
of Virginia, and William Johnston was the first collector of customs. According to the accounts 
rendered to Virginia, the articles imported before the act of Congress, were dry goods to the 
amount of £20,404.175; and flour £50; 705 pounds of coffee, 550 of sugar, 90 of snuff, and 7.915 
gallons of spirits. 

K. & I. BRIDGE. 

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In 1800, the mouth, of Beargrass Creek was improved and made a convenient harbor, under 
the auspices of the trustees, who appointed Evan Williams the first harbor-master, under the 
same authority Peter Barr erected the first market-house the city ever had, on Sixth street bet- 
ween Main and the river, in 1802. In 1806, the old graveyard on Jefferson, below Eleventh, 
where many old citizens were buried, was fenced against the trespass of stock running at 
large on the commons. In this same year half the public square on the south side of Jefferson 
street, between Fifth and Sixth, was authorized to be sold to raise funds for erecting the brick 
Court House with wooden pillars, that was built in 1817, on the corner where the City Hall now 
stands. Louisville and its suburbs were dotted with ponds here and there, and in the year last 
named a system of drainage wis successfully begun, by sinking wells near by and draining the 
water through them into the beds of sand and gravel that deeply underlie the city. The first 
pond thus drained by authority of the trustees was opposite the corner of Main and Third Streets. 
In 18 1 2, a map was made under legislative authority by Jared Brooks, which more correctly 
fixed and defined the streets and lots, which were in much confusion. In 1810, watchmen were 
first appointed to guard the interests of the citizens while they slept, and Edward Douler and 
John Ferguson first patrolled the streets, crying the hour of the night on a salary of $250 a year. 
The next year an ordinance required the stores to be all closed on Sunday, and all work was 
forbidden on the Sabbath. On the appearance of Brooks map in 181 2, the streets from First to 
Twelfth, and from Water to Chestnut received the names they now bear, except that Chestnut 
was called South street. In 18 13, the work of permanently improving the streets was begun, and 
Main street; from Third to Sixth, was ordered to be paved, at a cost of six dollars per square. 

In 18 16, a charter was obtained for the first public library, under the style of 'The Louis- 
ville Library Company," under the auspices of Mann Butler, Dr. Wm. C. Gait, Brooke Hill, 
Hezekiah Hawley, and William Tompkins. The books were kept in the upper story of the court 
house, and the volumes numbered 500, in 18 19; a fair beginning for that day. We have to 
deplore that the chronic neglect to care for this valuable nucleus for gathering western annals and 
literature, attended the enterprise, and like others of the kind in Kentucky, all remains of it have 
perished, save its brief history. In 1817, another institution of which the public has long been a 
beneficiary, and which was creditable to the spirit of philanthropy of the citizens, was projected 
and finally brought to completion. A scourge of small-pox had swept the city, and the need ot 


a permanent hospital was felt. To this end Thomas Prather gave five acres and Cuthbert 
Bullitt two, of the ample lot on Chestnut street, between Preston and Floyd; on this ground 
was erected and ultimately finished, the ample and imposing buildings of the present city hospital. 
It may be called the pioneer public charity of Louisville, and was only brought to completion by 
the co-operative aid of both the City and State. 

In 1818, the cross streets were extended south as far as Broadway, through the first ten and 
twenty acre lots. In 182 1 the city was divided into three wards, and in 1825 the trustees bought 
of James Pearce the river bank between Seventh and Eighth streets, and north of Water, for 
$698.25, for a wharf. The same year the city was honored with a visit from LaFayette, and $200 
was appropriated for duly celebrating the event. Four years before, the first hand fire engine was 
purchased for use in the city. 

The learned professions were not unrepresented, and history has not omitted to record their 
quaint peculiarities of the day. As soon as the fort at the foot of Twelfth street was built, near 
by, Dr. George Harff opened his office and began the practice of the healing art; much that he 
did is not of record; but we learn at least that he distinguished himself by charging George Clear 
$240 for administering to him eight doses of calomel, and $240 more for applying four blistering 




H ■' •«%,< M* i 






plasters to his child. It is due to the memory of Dr. Harff, and to the good name of the profess- 
ion, to remind the reader that these bills were rendered in the days of continental currency, which 
had much the same fate as the confederate currency in 1865, used by our brethern of the South 
within the memory of many yet living. At as early a date, Alexander Scott put up his sign as 
the first lawyer of Louisville, in point of time, and displayed his versatile humor by substituting 
for Blackstone's fictions of Doe vs Roe, such inventions as Seekright vs Badtitle, Dreadnaught vs 
Wronghead, Peaceable vs Headstrong, and other such monstrosities. Rev. John Whittaker seems 
to have been about the first representative of the clerical profession; and though there was no house 
of public worship as yet, he fouud stumps plentiful. From these rude and improvised pulpits, and 
the canopy of heaven overhead, he did not lack for opportunities nor audiences. 

Within the precinct of this same old fort, at as early a day as 1 780, there clustered the various 
manufacturing industries peculiar to the age. Without a reference to these we would fail to re- 
produce the history and picture to the mind, the habits, the customs and the life of the brave 
pioneers. William Spangler was the village blacksmith, the clang of whose anvil and hammer 
rang out across the river, or in echos through the forest adjacent. Hard by was the gunsmith 
shop of Michael Humble, where the old-fashioned flint-lock guns were daily repaired. Then 
came the cooper shop of useful Joseph Cyrus, where wooden piggins, pails, churns, noggins and 
other vessels of domestic use were made. On the south-east corner of Fifth and Main was the 
distillery of Evan Williams, and on the south-west corner the tannery of Peter Bass. On Main, 
between Sixth and Seventh was located the tailor shop of Mark Thomas, and on Fifth, between 
Main and the river, was the hatter's shop of Henry Duncan. Such was the primitive genesis of 
the manufacturing enterprise of the Falls City, now grown to vast proportions, and destined to a 
career of rivalry with that of the leading marts of the world. 

In early days in town and country, the stranger was ever welcome to the hospitality of the 
pioneer cabin. But there was an old law of Virginia as far back as 1663, which forbade compen- 
sation for such entertainment unless there was a previous bargain made for the price to be paid. 
Taverns, — hotels were not much known then — were therefore an early necessity. The first tavern 
known to have been kept at the Falls was that of Mark Thomas. This was a log cabin, and the 
hostelry premises embraced the whole square, No. 7, bounded by Main. Sixth and Seventh streets, 
and the river; here, fronting on Main, with the picturesque rapids for a river view towards the 


north, host Thomas owned and possessed a property that would have made his heirs many times 
millionaires if they could but have held it until this day. An incident is left of record, that the 
trustees of the town were regaled at the board of this tavern, and the bill of fare, probably 
appetized with some of the best of the product of Evan Williams' distillery, was so enticing, that 
they were captured into making an appropriation £20. ios to pay the costs thereof. Unluckily for 
Thomas or the trustees, a new board of city fathers soon after succeeded, and repudiated the 
bill the trustees charged to the intriguing tact of their chronic enemy, Col. Campbell, this cruel 
breach of faith. Other taverns were opened soon after, and the rates fixed by law were, corn, per 
gallon, gd; dinner, is, 6d; lodging, 6d; whiskey, per pint, 6d; toddy, per quart, is, 6d. 

Among the first things in Louisville, Daniel Broadhead opened a store on Main, below 
Second, where the old Washington Hall afterward stood. Then, and for many years after, goods 
were carried on pack horses over the mountains from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh, and thence on 
fiats down the Ohio. His store was not a specialty; everything worn on the person or used in 
the various employments could be purchased there. In addition, Broadhead was an insurer against 
losses by fire or water. We have some reminiscences of the prices paid for merchandise in those 
days — of course in continental money. John Westovall was among the citizens killed by the 










Indians. After his death, his estate was appraised by Demonia, Pomeroy and Parks, who, under 
oath, put the following prices on the articles named: One pair shoes, $40; 40 pounds of sugar, 
$30 per pound; 2 axes, $180; 2 pewter dishes, $160; featherbed and pillow, $150; One pot, $300; 
one clock, $20; three quilted petticoats, $350; one shawl, $300; one shirt, $300; one coat, $500; 
one blanket, $150; six pair stockings, $180; and so on. All the first houses were of logs or 
boards. It was not until 1789 that Augustus Kaye brought bricks from Pittsburgh, and erected a 
two-story brick house on Market street, below Fifth. It stood until 1835, when it was torn down 
to make way for more imposing structures. But wood materials were almost universally used in 
building, until 1828, when a provision in the charter required brick and stone to be used in the 
populous parts of the city, as a safeguard against fire. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the City of the Falls numbered approximately 
400 population'. According to the tax collector, there were six taverns, six retail stores, forty- 
nine horses, two carriages, twenty-eight dogs, sixty-five white tithables, sixty-two black, and 
seventy five children. - Among the merchants we find the names — some yet familiar in their 
descendants — of John Bustard, Thomas Bullitt, Gwathnecy & Clark, Peter B. Ormsby, Thomas 
Prather, and Nelson & Eastin, The real and personal property of the town was assessed at 
$91,188, the revenue from which amounted to less than $1000. 

On November 27, 1800, a bill was passed in the Legislature, authorizing the insertion of 
public advertisements in the Farmers' Library, a weekly paper to be printed at Louisville by 
Samuel Vail, and became a law. Only a few copies of this first newspaper of the infant city are 
preserved; none earlier than the issue of February 15, 1804. This was No. 161, which would 
date the first issue in 180 1. It was a little folio sheet 19x1 1, printed with long primer type, and 
contained more foreign than home matter. According to the Circuit Court record, editor Vail 
engaged in diversions more amazing, if not more profitable than driving the quill. He brought 
suit against Charles Quiry on open account, in which we find items as follows : Subscription to 
horse race, $1; to cash won of you at vantoon, $45. In another suit against one Sebastian, he 
accompanied the sheriff to execute a bail-writ, as the defendant was about to put off down the 
river on a boat. The result is only known from the return made by the sheriff: "The within 
named Sebastian would not be taken, but kept me off by force, namely, with a cudgel while in a 
boat." The Farmers Library was succeeded by the Western American in 1804; the Louisville 

Gazette in 1808; the Western Courier in 18 14; and in 1818, the Public Advertiser was begun by 
the noted Shadrach Penn. In 1826, the Focus was established and Dr. Joseph Buchanan became 
its editor, and continued until it was merged into the Journal and Focus, and finally into the 
Journal, made so famous for over a quarter of a century by the genius and wit of George D. 

Religion was not forgotten in the chaos of elements that gathered around this nucleus of 
civilization in the centre of the great trans-moutam wilderness. In a view of Louisville, by 
Gilbert Imlay, in his topographical description of North America in 1792, there is a church 
building on the north-west corner of Main and Twelfth streets. Tradition bears this out. Even 
before this date, such ministers known to Kentucky history in pioneer days as Revs. John Whittaker, 
Elijah Craig, William Hickman, Benjamin Lynn, and William Taylor, no doubt visited the falls 
and discoursed to the people upon the themes of the Gospel, in the forts and from the rostrum of 
the court house. In 1784, Rev. William Kavanaugh, an Episcopal minister, and father of Bishop 
Kavanaugh, recently deceased, of the Methodist Church, came to Beargrass settlement in Jefferson 
county, with the Hites. He became rector of the first church named above, as early as 1803, 
eight years before we have record of any other denomination establishing a church here. At the 
September term of the chancery court, in several cases against non-residents, warning orders 
were issued, and the same posted on the court house door, and ordered to be "read at the Rev. 
Wm. Kavanaugh's meeting house in Louisville, on some Sunday immediately after divine service," 
a copy of the Farmers' Library attests these facts. In 181 1, Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin erect- 
ed a Catholic church on the north-west corner of Tenth and Main streets, which was the second 
structure of the kind in the city. It was a neat frame, on the gothic style, and quite an improve- 
ment on the log house of Rev. Kavanaugh. Between- this church and Eleventh street was a 
graveyard, the remains of the silent tenantry of which were rudely disturbed when Eleventh was 
cut through to the river, and when the foundations of die warehouse on the corner of Main and 
Eleventh were dug. The first Methodist church was built on the north side of Market street, 
between Seventh and Eighth, on a lot given by John and James Bate. Here Bishop Asbury 
preached on Wednesday, October 22, 1812, about which he made the note: "I preached in 
Louisville in our neat brick house, I had a sickly, serious congregation. This is a growing and 
handsome place, but the Falls or ponds make it unhealthy." The first Presbyterian church, and 


the fourth in the city, was located on 
the west side of Fourth street, bet- 
ween Market and Jefferson, and built 
in 1816. It was burned in 1836, and 
nothing about it was more regretted 
than the loss of the sweet-toned bell, 
which all had long loved to hear ring 
out, in musical tones, the hour of ten 
o'clock at night after the fashion of 
the times, as well as the hours of 
worshipful services. Christ's Epis- 
copal Church on the east side of 
Second, between Green and Walnut, 
followed in 1825, built on a lot given 
by Peter B. Ormsby. This stands to- 
day with its improvements, the pio- 
neer church of the city. All others 
preceding have passed away. 

Next in importance as a civiliz- 
ing- factor was the school house. In 
1798 the legislature granted 6000 
acres of public land for the establish- 

ment of Jefferson Seminary, and a lottery authorized to raise $5000 for the same purpose. 
Fifty counties in the state received similar donations of land for seminary uses. The proceeds of 
300,000 acres of land thus set apart, were nearly all squandered. Not much was done in Louis- 
ville towards a public school until 1813; the log-house school was the dependence, then was 
purchased a lot on the west side of Eighth, between Walnut and Green streets, for $800, and a 
brick house with two rooms on the ground floor was erected. The seminary was opened at once, 
with Mann Butler, the historian of Kentucky, as principal, at a salary of $600, and Reuben Murray 
and William Tompkins as assistant teachers, at $500 each. This school, after years of changeful 










experience, was finally merged into our male High school of to-day. From this remote and meagre 
beginning has grown the ample and generous system of public and private schools which afford 
the facilities of education to the entire pupil population. 

To no one event was the growth and influence of Louisville due, as a great commercial cen- 
ter, more than that of the application of steam to the propulsion of vessels upon the western waters. 
Previous to the introduction of steamboats, flats and keels and barges did the carrying trade of 
the rivers, manned by a class of men who added little to the civilization of the times or the morals 
of the city. These rivermen were largely made up of characters formed amid the desperate ad- 
ventures of border-life. Many had been prominent spies and rangers who were thrown out of 
employment by the cessation of Indian hostilities, and they carried with them upon the river the 
habits they had formed while watching for the savage in the woods. With poles and oars they 
drove their boats against the currents, even of the mighty Mississippi. They had many a deadly 
contest with the outlaws who infested the shores of the rivers in early times. They were a hardy 
and reckless set of men, but safe to be entrusted with the cargoes committed to their charge, es- 
pecially when their services were needed to protect against the freebooters on the shores. 

On the Shippingport point and at the mouth of Beargrass Creek, were ship yards where the 
early boats were made, and here the boatmen had their frolics when on shore. At the old mouth 
of Beargrass, between Third and Fourth streets, the land was an extended flat, and here it was 
that Mike Fink, one of the leaders of the boatmen, sometimes amused his comrades and such 
citizens as chose to look on, by shooting a pint cup with his trusty rifle, from the head of his 
brother at the distance of thirty yards or more. This shooting was usually done on a wager for a 
quart of whiskey, and it is almost incredible that a man, knowing that the variance of the rifle the 
tenth part of an inch at the muzzle would have driven the ball crashing through the brain, would 
have risked its coming so near, for his share of a quart of whiskey; yet it was often done without 
hurt and without danger in the opinion of the iron-nerved men of the day. 

In October, 181 r, the Orleans, the first steamboat that ever moved upon the Ohio River, 
landed at the mouth of Beargrass. She was in charge of Captain Rosevelt, with George Baker 
engineer, Andrew Jack, pilot, and six hands for firemen and crew. She was built by Fulton and 
Livingston, at Pittsburgh, and was estimated at about 300 tons burden. She had but one boiler, 
placed in the hull, and her paddle-wheels at the sides were uncovered. Her smoke-stack was in 


the centre, and in front and rear rose masts, like the fore and aft of a ship. She had a low- 
pressure engine, and her cabin covered three-quarters of her deck. The Orleans arrived in four 
days from Pittsburgh. On reaching the Falls the water was found too low for her to pass over 
the rapids on her way to New Orleans, to which place she was destined. Until a rise in the river 
early in December removed the barrier in her way, she made trips between Louisville and Cin- 
cinnati. On her way to New Orleans she passed through the scenes and convulsions of the earth- 
quake in the region of New Madrid, Missouri, in 181 1-12, and took her place in the trade between 
the Crescent City and Natchez. In 1814 she was snagged and lost in the Mississippi near Baton 
Rouge. The experiment of the Orleans, though brief and financially unprofitable, settled the fact 
that steam would drive a boat without the aid of wind or oars against the currents of the rivers. 
It was at once apparent that the old and clumsy crafts of keel and flat would be superseded, and 
that a revolution must follow in the transportation by water of the commerce of the country. For 
forty years after this first venture, the palatial steamers that plied the Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries between the cities of the upper valley and New Orleans were the boast and pride of the 
West. The introduction of the' more rapid and satisfactory transportation by railroad has driven 
the magnificent and popular steamers from the field of competition, and the supremacy of the 

■ ■■ ■ 








waters is gone. In six years from the first trial trip there were forty-one steamers put upon the 
western waters, and twenty-seven others in course of construction; ten years later still, there were 
two hundred such craft plying the great arteries of the valley. 

It is not without pride that we recall here the fact that the original inventor of the passenger 
and freight steamboat was a pioneer Kentuckian. The pages of history and the Cyclopaedias relate 
that John Fitch was here among the early settlers, and on the ist of June, 1780, entered 800 
acres of land on the main eastern branch of Coxe's creek; also 800 more on Simpson's creek, 
below Kincheloe's station, in what is now Spencer County. As early as 1786, one of his passenger 
boats moved successfully by steam upon the Deleware River; and another in 1790 made seven 
and a half miles in an hour on the same river. Fitch's first boats were propelled by paddles, but 
in New York in 1792 he applied the screw. The inventor was poor, and capitalists were incred- 
ulous and shy over the novelty of the new art. He could not obtain the money to overcome all 
obstacles to success. Discouraged and in despair, he took to drink, and died under the roof of 
the family of Professor McCann, the venerable and noted teacher, at Bardstown in 1 798. After 
his death, Fulton began his experiments on the Seine at Paris, in 1799, and had the genius to 
combine the discoveries of Fitch and others, with a harmonious whole, and to successfully launch 
his first boat, the Clermont, on the Hudson in 1807. Fulton owned the Orleans, the first boat 
named from Pittsburgh to Louisville in 181 1. 

Such is a brief historic sketch of the infant plane and antecedent growth of the City of the 
Falls, which, from a cabin village in the wilderness one hundred years ago, has grown to sit in 
queenly majesty and pride in the midst of civilization, one of the fifteen greatest metropolitan 
marts within the territory of the United States. The Louisville of to-day opens to us treasures 
of fact, of suggestion, and of promise, which might be well elaborated into a volume of itself, did 
the occasion justify. If we may judge by the city directory for 1889, and by other standard 
indices of estimation, the census of 1890, to be taken within twelve months, will show an increase 
of population of fifty per cent, over that of 1880, when it barely reached 125,000. It now 
approximates 200,000, showing a ratio of increase above the average with cities of the first-class 
mentioned, and about double the ratio of increase in the United States. 

The City of Louisville has a river frontage of something more than eight miles with the 
meanders of the shore line upon the north, and extends southward an average width of about 


two miles, embracing within the cor- 
porate limits fourteen square miles. 
It is traversed and intersected by 160 
miles of improved streets and alleys, 
which uniformly cross each other at 
right angles. The streets are excep- 
tionally spacious and broad, most of 
them measuring from 60 to 1 20 feet 
in width. The principal thoroughfares 
from east to west, parallel with the 
river, are seven miles in length, and 
those north and south usually exceed 
two miles. Louisville is built on a 
broad, level platform, skirted on the 
south and west by an undulating 
wooded country, and open farms on 
the east, affording a boundless area 
of almost unbroken plain for the future 
extension of its limits. Her present 
area is drained by 43 miles of sewer- 
age, and lighted by over 3000 street 
lamps and numerous electric lights. 

It may be affirmed of Louisville that she far surpasses every other city of the same population 
in the world, in the number of miles of street railway. There is scarcely a single square in the 
city that is not touched on one side, or both, by a line of such railway, and "scarcely a residence 
that is not easily accessible to such transportation. The system of transfers at the crossings 
makes it feasible at any time of day, and until midnight, for the citizen passenger to go to and 
from any portion of the city he may desire. All fares within the city are limited to five cents, and 
this run includes the transfers; so that one can often ride six and eight miles for a nickel. The 
regular horse-car lines make a total of about one hundred miles, and if we add to these the steam 




suburban lines which extend three to four miles into the suburbs, and reach the residence additions 
to the city, the total miles of street railway is over one hundred and twenty. The Daisy line to 
New Albany, the Daisy Belt line and the Dinkey line to Jeffersonville and New Albany, with the 
several steam ferries plying- at all hours of the day, have practically made the cities on the Indiana 
shore a part of Louisville. To this extended system of street railways, Louisville is largely 
indebted, for the distribution of her population over a wide area, and for the ample lots upon 
which residences are built. The system, fostered by favorable municipal policies, has prevented 
the concentration and crowding of population into narrow and unhealthy limits. On these 
different lines of inter-city transportation, over 20,000,000 passengers are carried annually, with 
ease and comfort, to and from every point in the city and its suburbs. The wide distribution of 
home-sites resulting from this admirable system, has given to the citizens of all classes ample and 
spacious lots at cheap prices, upon which to build their residences, as we have just said. To this 
fact more than to any other, is due the favorable hygienic reports which, in comparison with other 
cities, show Louisville to be one of the healthiest in the world. To show the advantages in this 
respect, we give a recent report of the mortality rates in several leading cities, which shows a 
fair average for ten years. 


New Orleans, 

St. Louis, ... 

New York, 


Chattanooga, ... 

Boston, .... 

Milwaukee, - 

Hartford, ... - 

Lowell, .... 

Chicago, .... 

Contributary to this result is the fortunate location of the city in the temperate zone, and the 
admirable system of drainage, all conspiring to exempt it from the fatal epidemics which have 
so often decimated the population of other cities. 

The water supply for the city is furnished by the Ohio River. The water works are located 
at the beautiful site of Crescent Hill, located four miles from the court house square. There are 
laid through the city over 130 miles of pipe for the conveyance of this, with about 10,000 attach- 








Philadelphia, - 






Brooklyn, - - V 






Indianapolis, - 



Nashville, (white) 



Nashville, (colored) - 





_1 _ 




ments. The city owns almost the entire stock of the company, and furnishes free of cost all 
water for fire-cisterns, fire-hydrants, city hall, engine houses, public fountains, and other public 
purposes. The improvements are of a costly character, and the embellishments of its surround- 
ings have already converted Crescent Hill into one of the most attractive resorts about the 
suburbs. It will in time become a popular park for the public. The city government has been 
comparatively good and economic. The following figures exhibit the amount v per capita of indebt- 
edness, in the several largest cities, and that the taxes are not unusually burdensome here : 

Cleveland, - 
New Orleans, 

$77.84 New York, 

25.43 Philadelphia, 

86.20 Pittsburgh, 

40.38" St. Louis, 

82.08 Louisville, 


The river view in front of Louisville is at once unique and picturesque. The landscape scene 
presents an unusual breadth of water here, with the plateau of level country on the Indiana side 
stretching far away to the north, with the city of Jeffersonville lying above, and New Albany 
some miles below. In ordinary tide, the waters of the rapids leap and sparkle and foam over the 
rocky shoals for a distance of two miles or more, as they pass in front and reach the bend at 

•^ "J^^ S fe ^ 

- '.— - m.. — 









Portland. From the same standpoint, we are in full view of the bridge that stretches on its 
tower pillars from the foot of Fourteenth Street across to the Indiana shore, with its loaded rail- 
road trains ever passing and repassing. Two miles below, the Kentucky and Indiana Bridge 
connects the city again with New Albany, and gives transit to the trains of several railroads, to 
the suburban trains of the Daisy line, and to vehicles and foot passengers. About the same 
distance above, the site and surveys are made for the new bridge between the upper wards and 
Jeffersonville, for which a charter was recently obtained from Congress, and the construction of 
which is soon to begin. 

Just at the feet of the viewer, and bordered by the Kentucky shore, lies the Canal, which has 
a history of its own, almost coeval with the century. The Falls of Ohio, as a barrier to naviga- 
tion, from an early date after the first settlements in Kentucky, engaged the attention of men of 
enterprise. The necessity for a canal here seems to have impressed the fertile mind of that bold 
and adventurous pioneer in western commerce, as well as daring military and political leader, 
Gen. James Wilkinson. This gentleman, after serving through the War of the Revolution, 
settled at Lexington, Kentucky, in 1784, and traded largely in tobacco and other products of the 
country, by river, with New Orleans, and at the time when he was the great leader in the 
Spanish intrigues to detach Kentucky from the Union. The line of this canal appears on Finley's 
map of the Falls, as early as 1792, and, in 1802 the legislature of Kentucky chartered a company 
for the construction of such an improvement. Nothing was done, however, until the charter of 
the Louisville and Portland Canal was granted in 1825, under which work was begun, and the 
canal completed in 1830 at a cost of three-quarters of a million. The first boat that passed 
through was the Uncas, December 21, 1830. The general government now owns and controls 
the entire property and interests in this important work, and proposes to keep it in condition to 
accommodate with facility the entire shipping upon the Ohio. 

A feature of the city that commands the admiration of the visitor is the architectural taste, 
and the beauty, "and the solidity of her private residences. On Broadway and on Fourth, Third and 
Second Avenues, for two miles south from Walnut, there are almost uninterrupted lines of hand- 
some domiciles, set in spacious yards, and kept in neat and ornate condition, and the same may 
be said of many other of the populous streets. While there is perhaps a more uniform dis- 
tribution of wealth among the citizens than in any city of its population in the Union, there are 


but few millionaire residents. On the other hand, there is an absence of the crowded tenement 
houses which are so often and conspicuously blemishes upon the thoroughfares of great cities. 
The people are pre-eminently social and home-loving; hence the pride they have ever shown in 
their elegant and attractive homes, and in their domestic surroundings. This love of home and 
home-life embraces the working classes and people of moderate means, also, as is shown in the 
innumerable cottages with yards and gardens, which are distributed over so great a portion of 
the city, in lieu of the dreaded cheap tenement houses which they fortunately have supplanted. 
No first-grade city offers spacious residence lots for comfortable homes, and convenient by street 
cars to every point within the corporate limits, so cheaply as Louisville; while the fertile country 
for miles away, with its gardens, and the blue grass regions beyond, with their famous fatted 
herds, make this one of the best and cheapest markets for the table in the world. 

Among the cities of the dead connected with the great cities of the living in our country, 
there is none more unique and attractive than Cave Hill Cemetery, the chief burial ground of 
Louisville. Those who have seen the cemeteries of New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and elsewhere, almost uniformly concede that there is none more beautiful and picturesque than 
Cave Hill. Nature and art have happily conspired to make of this a landscape scene of peerless 
charms. Located on the undulating and rolling brakes of Beargrass, at the Highlands, it was 
originally a natural park of rare beauty, two hundred feet above the river level, with its knolls 
and swells of land, undulating with infinite variety, and changing and shifting the landscape 
scenes with every motion and without an apparent fault to the eye in the harmony of the whole. 
This extensive area has been improved wisely and artistically, with a rare and true fidelity to 
nature. The main portion, and all within the scope of the eye, is now as populous with the 
monuments of the dtad, as the great city itself is with the domiciles of the living. From the 
ever-varying eminences of knolls and crests, that overlook the valleys and slopes and dells that 
lie in charming variety and contrast on every hand, the beautiful shafts and pillars of marble and 
granite, with their infinite and artistic designs, crowd upon the view, and stretch away filling the 
scene as far as the eye can reach. The traveled and practiced eye, if it does not at once accord 
with the popular verdict, will pronounce Cave Hill among the most beautiful of the buria 
grounds of America. 

Louisville has for many years been noted for the excellency of her public school system. 


She has kept apace with modern improvement and reform, and her people may now be said to 
be as well accommodated with all the facilities for the general education of all children, white 
and colored, as are those of any other city in our country. At the head of the system stand the 
Male and French High Schools, with curriculums of study similar to those of the majority of 
colleges, and with ample buildings and equipments for their mission. There are besides these, 
twenty-seven white ward schools, and six colored. A number of other schools of a high grade 
and excellence, under private and other auspices, supplement the public system. In Louisville 
is located the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, the only one of the kind in the Southern 
States of extended means and great prominence. It is well endowed, and is conducted by an 
able and learned faculty of teachers, and attended by about one hundred and forty young men 
preparing for the fields of the ministry. The Kentucky State Institutions for the white and 
colored blind are located in Louisville, and are projected and managed on a scale which ranks 
them with the most successful of the age. Among the recognized and important factors in 
culture and education in our metropolis is the Polytechnic School and Library. It maintains a 
library of 43,964 volumes, as reported for 1888, always open to the public. The art school, 
lectures, laboratory and museum of collections, make of this one of the interesting attractions. 
















PH. HOLLENBACH & CO., N. E. Cor. Market and Sixth Sts. 



I V Ml l|^Bf| iim 




*1L *fc 

1 1 -"■"■"• — "rrra-j 

HkisSHlil llML'lMal &'■' 

- I BHM _- 


The income of the Institution for 1888, was $13,642.92. There are here four Medical Colleges 

with an annual attendance of about one thousand. 


Caron's Directory for 1888 gaye 71,180 names, and the estimate of 177,950 population. The 
Directory for 1889, recently published, contains 75,454 names; by using the multiplier 2 l /i (in 
vogue since i860) Louisville has a population of 188,635, an increase for the past year of 10,685. 

The natural advantages of Louisville in location, geographically and civilly, are surpassed by 
no other of her great rivals. Of the cities of over 150,000, she is the nearest the center of the 
population, which is yet a little east of the Falls. For many decades, as the preponderance goes 
westward, this centre must approximate and remain not far from the city. She is in communi- 
cation with thirty-two navigable rivers, with an aggregate of over 25,000 miles, which drain the 
Mississippi Valley, of which those in Kentucky alone afford sixteen hundred miles of transporta- 
tion for her commerce and trade. 

But a new agent appears in the field of enterprise and industry, destined in a short time to 
revolutionize the business of Louisville, and to give an impetus to her growth and prosperity un- 
precedented in any period of the past. The discovery and development of natural gas for fuel 
and for lighting the city, began on a large scale in 1888, has become a demonstrated success for 
1889. The Kentucky Rock Gas Company is the pioneer in this enterprise. It leased very valu- 
able lands in Meade County, twenty-five miles below the city, and has sunk over a dozen wells, 
most of which are producing largely. The company has laid a pipe-line into Louisville, and is 
engaged in making connections with factories and residences to furnish them with fuel and lights 
at a greatly reduced cost. Other companies have organized and are at work developing their 
territory in the gas region, and the city is, at an early day, destined to be supplied with this new 
agent of industry and economy in the supply of the wants of mankind.